Francesca Cardarelli

All articles by Francesca Cardarelli

Kidney Transplantation: Diagnosis and Management of Early Graft Dysfunction – Intrinsic Causes and Treatments

Does this patient have early graft dysfunction related to intrinsic causes? What is early graft dysfunction? Kidney transplantation is the preferred mode of renal replacement therapy for end stage renal disease, with dramatic improvements in patient and graft survival over the last 50 years. In the modern era of immunosuppression, 1-year patient survival is close…

Kidney Transplantation: Transplant Immunology and Use of Immunosuppression

Does this patient have too much or too little immunosuppression? Choosing the proper immunosuppression for a patient involves balancing the risk of immunologic graft injury against the risks of infection and malignancy. This requires an understanding of basic immunology, the mechanism of action and side effects of immunosuppressive medications, and a thorough immunologic risk assessment.…

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