Dirk M. Elston, Author at Renal and Urology News

Dirk M. Elston

All articles by Dirk M. Elston

Balanitis xerotica obliterans (lichen sclerosus)

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? The primary differential diagnosis is lichen planus, although Candida balanitis, psoriasis, and erythroplasia of Queyrat can also present with genital lesions that could be confused with balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO). Itch is generally a prominent symptom. The absence of itch should prompt the clinician to question the diagnosis. Characteristic…

Zoon’s balanitis (balanitis circumscripta plasmacellularis)

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Characteristic findings on physical examination The lesions are round to oval, and have a moist velvety appearance. Expected results of diagnostic studies Biopsy is required to establish the diagnosis. A biopsy of Zoon’s balanitis demonstrates atrophy of the epithelium with mild intraepithelial spongiosis surrounding flattened diamond-shaped keratinocytes. The underlying…

Plague (Bubonic Plague)

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Characteristic findings on physical examination Bubonic plague presents with suppurative lymphadenitis in the form of enlarged, tender lymph nodes. Fever, chills and prostration are common. Pneumonic plague presents primarily wth fever, chills, cough and dyspnea. Patients may experience shock and death if the diagnosis is not considered and the…

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