David Alter, Author at Renal and Urology News - Page 7

David Alter

All articles by David Alter

Liver, Failure

At a Glance Acute liver failure (ALF; fulminant hepatic failure, fulminant hepatitis, or ischemic necrosis) is a catastrophic, rapid deterioration of liver function in previously healthy individuals without any history of liver disease (>26 weeks in duration) in combination with coagulopathy (International Normalized Ratio (INR) > 1.5) and encephalopathy to complete the diagnostic criteria. There…

Pancreatitis (ACUTE)

At a Glance Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreas with multiple etiologies (two of the most common are gallstone related and excessive alcohol abuse). A combination of the patient’s medical/social history combined with a clinical presentation of an acute onset of severe epigastria, nausea, and vomiting place acute pancreatitis high in the…

Thrombocytopenia

Differential Diagnosis Splenomegaly with platelet sequestration Increased platelet destruction by an immune mechanism; can occur as a result of: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) Idiopathic or immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) Drug (other than heparin)-induced thrombocytopenia Post-transfusion purpura (PTP) Increased platelet destruction by non-immune mechanisms, as caused by: DIC Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) Decreased…

Leukopenia

Differential Diagnosis Most cases of leukopenia are associated with a low number of granulocytes. Decreased production of granulocytes may be caused by marrow failure, infiltration of the marrow by leukemic cells or metastatic cancer cells, suppression of granulocyte production by certain drugs, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency. There may be an accelerated removal of…

Hyperglycemia

Differential Diagnosis Type I diabetes is an absolute deficiency of insulin secretion. Type II diabetes represents various degrees of insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes may be from unrecognized type I diabetes or subclinical and incipient type II diabetes. Diabetes may result from heterogeneous causes, such as exocrine pancreatic disease, toxins to islet cells, or use of…

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