Daniel M. Kaplan

All articles by Daniel M. Kaplan

Cholesterol embolization syndrome (atheroembolism, "blue toe syndrome")

Cholesterol embolization syndrome (atheroembolism, "blue toe syndrome"). I. What every physician needs to know. Cholesterol embolization syndrome (CES), also known as atheroembolism, or “blue toe syndrome” from its most peripheral manifestation, refers to the release of cholesterol crystals from ruptured atherosclerotic plaque in a large artery resulting in embolization to more distal small and medium…


Hypophosphatemia and Refeeding Syndrome I. What every physician needs to know Acute hypophosphatemia is an iatrogenic development, caused by redistribution of phosphorus from the extracellular to intracellular compartments in patients with underlying depletion of phosphate stores. The classic example of this situation is the refeeding syndrome (RFS), of which hypophosphatemia is the cardinal manifestation; the…

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