Audrey Schuetz, Author at Renal and Urology News

Audrey Schuetz

All articles by Audrey Schuetz

Vaginitis

At a Glance Trichomoniasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis comprise 90% of cases of infectious vaginitis or vulvovaginitis. A history of symptoms should include vaginal discharge and odor, mode of onset (abrupt or insidious), vaginal irritation, and abdominal pain. Trichomoniasis is notable for vulvar and vaginal erythema with a purulent, rarely frothy, vaginal discharge. Candida…

Infectious Arthritis

At a Glance Infectious arthritis may be due to many different microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria, and viruses. Septic arthritis generally refers to a bacterial process, but the entity also includes infection due to fungi and mycobacteria. Septic arthritis is considered a rheumatologic emergency because of the potential for rapid joint destruction and patient decompensation.…

Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP)

At a Glance Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP; also known as primary peritonitis) is an infection of the peritoneal cavity without an evident intra-abdominal source. SBP must be distinguished from secondary peritonitis because of a surgically-treatable cause, such as a ruptured appendix. Among adults, SBP usually occurs in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Although relatively rare,…

Pregnancy-Related Infections

At a Glance Pregnancy-related infections discussed in this section include Group B streptococcal infections, urinary tract infections, isteriosis, influenza, and varicella. Infections due to these organisms are associated with increased morbidity or mortality of the mother and/or fetus. Group B streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) is a gram-positive coccus that is a frequent colonizer of the…

Sepsis and Bloodstream Infections

At a Glance Sepsis is defined as proven or suspected infection in the setting of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Criteria used to define SIRS include tachycardia, tachypnea, leukocytosis or leukopenia, and fever or hypothermia. Sepsis may be associated with other findings in addition to the SIRS criteria, including altered mental status, hyperbilirubinemia, metabolic acidosis,…

Infective Endocarditis (IE)

At a Glance Infective endocarditis (IE) is a specific bloodstream infection resulting from infection of the endocardium with a microorganism. The diagnosis is based on a constellation of clinical findings and other criteria in the presence of positive blood cultures and endocardial involvement. A predisposing cardiac lesion is not evident in one-third to one-fourth of…

Male and Female Reproductive, Infectious Diseases (Sexually Transmitted Diseases; STDs)

At a Glance Lesions of the genital skin and mucous membranes most commonly result from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Infectious diseases covered in this chapter include syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), human papillomavirus infection (HPV), and Chlamydia/gonorrhea. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. The disease…

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