Approaches to Renal Surgery in the Frail Elderly

An 84-year-old woman who underwent renal biopsy for a right upper pole enhancing 4.3 cm renal mass is considering her surgical options.

The mass has demonstrated rapid growth kinetics (8 mm growth in six months) and biopsy revealed clear cell renal cell carcinoma with associated necrosis.

The patient enjoys excellent performance status, but has history of TIA, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, bradycardia ...