In a randomized study of patients with heart failure, including some with concurrent chronic kidney disease, patients who received vitamin D supplements or placebo had similar changes in hemoglobin levels over 36 months.
The risk for premature death increased by 62% and 42% for stage 3 CKD patients with vitamin D deficiency and elevated parathyroid hormone levels, respectively.
Meta-analysis shows comparable efficacy in lowering iPTH, but analyses of patient-centered outcomes such as mortality and cardiovascular death were not possible.
As 25(OH)D levels increased, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly, even after accounting for calcium intake.
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