Newer Approaches to Kidney Cancer Surgery May Involve "Retro" Strategies

A 45-year-old man is incidentally found to have a 2.5 cm left hilar renal mass posterior to the left renal artery with a R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score of 1+2+3+p+3h=9ph. The patient’s estimated glomerular filtration rate is 50 mL/min/1.72m2.