Kidney Stones May Raise Risk of Renal Dysfunction
Kidney stones increase the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), according to findings published online in the British Medical Journal.
Marcello Tonelli, MD, of the University of Alberta in Edmonton, and colleagues studied more than 1.9 million adults without ESRD at baseline or a history of pyelonephritis and who had outpatient serum creatinine measurements. A total of 23,706 individuals had at least one kidney stone.
Over a median follow-up of 11 years, ESRD developed in 5,333 (0.2%) individuals, late stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) developed in 68,525 (4%), sustained doubling of serum creatinine occurred in 6,581 (0.3%).
In adjusted analyses, one or more stone episodes during follow-up was associated with a significant twofold increased risk of ESRD, a 1.7 times increased risk of late stage CKD, and a 1.9 times increased risk of a doubling of serum creatinine compared with individuals who did not have kidney stones. However, the investigators pointed out that the increases were small in absolute terms.